Linux Standard Base Common Definitions

LSB Common 5.0 Edition

Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1; with no Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts, and with no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".

Portions of the text may be copyrighted by the following parties:

  • The Regents of the University of California

  • Free Software Foundation

  • Ian F. Darwin

  • Paul Vixie

  • BSDI (now Wind River)

  • Jean-loup Gailly and Mark Adler

  • Massachusetts Institute of Technology

  • Apple Inc.

  • Easy Software Products

  • artofcode LLC

  • Till Kamppeter

  • Manfred Wassman

  • Python Software Foundation

These excerpts are being used in accordance with their respective licenses.

Linux is the registered trademark of Linus Torvalds in the U.S. and other countries.

UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group.

LSB is a trademark of the Linux Foundation in the United States and other countries.

AMD is a trademark of Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.

Intel and Itanium are registered trademarks and Intel386 is a trademark of Intel Corporation.

PowerPC is a registered trademark and PowerPC Architecture is a trademark of the IBM Corporation.

S/390 is a registered trademark of the IBM Corporation.

OpenGL is a registered trademark of Silicon Graphics, Inc.

PAM documentation is Copyright (C) Andrew G. Morgan 1996-9. All rights reserved. Used under the following conditions:

  1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, and the entire permission notice in its entirety, including the disclaimer of warranties.

  2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.

  3. The name of the author may not be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specific prior written permission.


This release is dedicated to the memory of Christopher Yeoh, a long-time friend and colleague, and a contributor to LSB from the earliest days. Without his dedication this work would not have been possible.

Table of Contents
Status of this Document
I. Introductory Elements
1. Scope
1.1. General
2. Requirements
2.1. Relevant Libraries
2.2. Relevant Commands
2.3. LSB Implementation Conformance
2.4. LSB Application Conformance
3. Terms and Definitions
4. Documentation Conventions
5. Relationship To ISO/IEC 9945 POSIX
6. Relationship To Other Linux Foundation Specifications
A. GNU Free Documentation License (Informative)
A.12. How to use this License for your documents
List of Tables
2-1. LSB Core Module Library Names
2-2. LSB Core Module Library Names which vary by architecture
2-3. LSB Desktop Module Library Names
2-4. LSB Imaging Module Library Names
2-5. LSB Languages Module Library Names
2-6. LSB Core Module Command Names
2-7. LSB Desktop Module Command Names
2-8. LSB Imaging Module Command Names
2-9. LSB Languages Module Command Names


This is version 5.0 of the Linux Standard Base Common Definitions. This specification is one of a series of volumes under the collective title Linux Standard Base:

Note that the Core and Desktop volumes consist of a generic volume augmented by an architecture-specific volume.

Status of this Document

This is a released specification, version 5.0. Other documents may supersede or augment this specification.

A list of current released Linux Standard Base (LSB) specifications is available at

If you wish to make comments regarding this document in a manner that is tracked by the LSB project, please submit them using our public bug database at Please enter your feedback, carefully indicating the title of the section for which you are submitting feedback, and the volume and version of the specification where you found the problem, quoting the incorrect text if appropriate. If you are suggesting a new feature, please indicate what the problem you are trying to solve is. That is more important than the solution, in fact.

If you do not have or wish to create a bug database account then you can also e-mail feedback to (subscribe, archives), and arrangements will be made to transpose the comments to our public bug database.


The LSB defines a binary interface for application programs that are compiled and packaged for LSB-conforming implementations on many different hardware architectures. A binary specification must include information specific to the computer processor architecture for which it is intended. To avoid the complexity of conditional descriptions, the specification has instead been divided into generic parts which are augmented by one of several architecture-specific parts, depending on the target processor architecture; the generic part will indicate when reference must be made to the architecture part, and vice versa.

This document should be used in conjunction with the documents it references. This document enumerates the system components it includes, but descriptions of those components may be included entirely or partly in this document, partly in other documents, or entirely in other reference documents. For example, the section that describes system service routines includes a list of the system routines supported in this interface, formal declarations of the data structures they use that are visible to applications, and a pointer to the underlying referenced specification for information about the syntax and semantics of each call. Only those routines not described in standards referenced by this document, or extensions to those standards, are described in the detail. Information referenced in this way is as much a part of this document as is the information explicitly included here.

The specification carries a version number of either the form x.y or x.y.z. This version number carries the following meaning:

  1. The first number (x) is the major version number. Versions sharing the same major version number shall be compatible in a backwards direction; that is, a newer version shall be compatible with an older version. Any deletion of a library results in a new major version number. Interfaces marked as deprecated may be removed from the specification at a major version change.

  2. The second number (y) is the minor version number. Libraries and individual interfaces may be added, but not removed. Interfaces may be marked as deprecated at a minor version change. Other minor changes may be permitted at the discretion of the LSB workgroup.

  3. The third number (z), if present, is the editorial level. Only editorial changes should be included in such versions.

Since this specification is a descriptive Application Binary Interface, and not a source level API specification, it is not possible to make a guarantee of 100% backward compatibility between major releases. However, it is the intent that those parts of the binary interface that are visible in the source level API will remain backward compatible from version to version, except where a feature marked as "Deprecated" in one release may be removed from a future release. Implementors are strongly encouraged to make use of symbol versioning to permit simultaneous support of applications conforming to different releases of this specification.

LSB is a trademark of the Linux Foundation. Developers of applications or implementations interested in using the trademark should see the Linux Foundation Certification Policy for details.

Chapter 1. Scope

1.1. General

The Linux Standard Base (LSB) defines a system interface for compiled applications and a minimal environment for support of installation scripts. Its purpose is to enable a uniform industry standard environment for high-volume applications conforming to the LSB.

The LSB specification set is divided into modules, each of which provides fundamental system interfaces, libraries, and runtime environment upon which all conforming applications and libraries using that module depend.

The modules of the Linux Standard Base are:

  • LSB Core - core components

  • LSB Desktop - desktop related components

  • LSB Languages - runtime languages

  • LSB Imaging - printing and scanning

  • LSB Trial Use - components that are not yet mandatory

Interfaces described in the LSB Core module specification are supplemented by other LSB module specifications. All other modules depend on the presence of LSB Core.

These specifications are composed of two basic parts: a common part describing those parts of the interface that remain constant across all implementations of the LSB, and an architecture-specific part describing the parts of the interface that vary by processor architecture. Together, the common part and the relevant architecture-specific part for a single hardware architecture provide a complete interface specification for compiled application programs on systems that share a common hardware architecture. Whenever a section of the common part is supplemented by architecture-specific information, the common part includes a reference to the architecture-specific part. Architecture-specific parts of of an LSB module specification may also contain additional information that is not referenced in the common part.

The LSB contains both a set of Application Program Interfaces (APIs) and Application Binary Interfaces (ABIs). APIs may appear in the source code of portable applications, while the compiled binary of that application may use the larger set of ABIs. A conforming implementation provides all of the ABIs listed here. The compilation system may replace (e.g. by macro definition) certain APIs with calls to one or more of the underlying binary interfaces, and may insert calls to binary interfaces as needed.

The LSB is primarily a binary interface definition. Not all of the source level APIs available to applications may be contained in this specification.

Chapter 2. Requirements

2.1. Relevant Libraries

The libraries listed in the following tables shall be available on a Linux Standard Base system, with the specified runtime names. The libraries listed in Table 2-2 are architecture specific, but shall be available on all LSB conforming systems under a name specified in each Architecture Specific Part of the LSB Core module.

Table 2-1. LSB Core Module Library Names

LibraryRuntime Name

Table 2-2. LSB Core Module Library Names which vary by architecture

LibraryRuntime Name
libcSee architecture specific part.
libmSee architecture specific part.
proginterpSee architecture specific part.

Table 2-3. LSB Desktop Module Library Names

LibraryRuntime Name

Table 2-4. LSB Imaging Module Library Names

LibraryRuntime Name

Table 2-5. LSB Languages Module Library Names

LibraryRuntime Name

2.2. Relevant Commands

The commands listed in the following tables shall be available on a Linux Standard Base system, with the specified runtime names.

Table 2-6. LSB Core Module Command Names


Table 2-7. LSB Desktop Module Command Names


Table 2-8. LSB Imaging Module Command Names


Table 2-9. LSB Languages Module Command Names


2.3. LSB Implementation Conformance

A conforming implementation is necessarily architecture specific, and must provide the interfaces specified by both the generic LSB specifications and the applicable architecture specific part.

Rationale: An implementation must provide at least the interfaces specified in these specifications. It may also provide additional interfaces.

A conforming implementation shall satisfy the following requirements:

  • A processor architecture represents a family of related processors which may not have identical feature sets. The architecture specific part of the LSB Core Specification for a given target processor architecture describes a minimum acceptable processor. The implementation shall provide all features of this processor, whether in hardware or through emulation transparent to the application.

  • The implementation shall be capable of executing compiled applications having the format and using the system interfaces described in this specification.

  • The implementation shall provide libraries containing the interfaces specified by this specification, and shall provide a dynamic linking mechanism that allows these interfaces to be attached to applications at runtime. All the interfaces shall behave as specified in this specification.

  • The map of virtual memory provided by the implementation shall conform to the requirements of this specification.

  • The implementation's low-level behavior with respect to function call linkage, system traps, signals, and other such activities shall conform to the formats described in this specification.

  • The implementation shall provide all of the mandatory interfaces in their entirety.

  • The implementation may provide one or more of the optional interfaces. Each optional interface that is provided shall be provided in its entirety. The product documentation shall state which optional interfaces are provided.

  • The implementation shall provide all files and utilities specified as part of this specification in the format defined here and in other documents normatively included by reference. All commands and utilities shall behave as required by this specification. The implementation shall also provide all mandatory components of an application's runtime environment that are included or referenced in this specification.

  • The implementation, when provided with standard data formats and values at a named interface, shall provide the behavior defined for those values and data formats at that interface. However, a conforming implementation may consist of components which are separately packaged and/or sold. For example, a vendor of a conforming implementation might sell the hardware, operating system, and windowing system as separately packaged items.

  • The implementation may provide additional interfaces with different names. It may also provide additional behavior corresponding to data values outside the standard ranges, for standard named interfaces.

  • The implementation shall report whether supports for each of the modules constituting this specification is currently available, with the exception of the Trial Use module, which need not be reported. At a minimum, this reporting shall be performed using the lsb_release command described in the LSB Core module specification.

    Rationale: An implementation must support all modules described as mandatory in this specification. However, excepting the LSB Core module, which is always required, the support for a module may not be installed or enabled. The intent of this clause is to indicate a run-time query mechanism to determine the status of module support.

2.4. LSB Application Conformance

A conforming application containing object files is necessarily architecture specific, and must conform to both the generic LSB Core module specification (LSB Core - Generic) and the relevant architecture specific part of the LSB Core Specification. A conforming application which contains no object files may be architecture neutral. Architecture neutral applications shall conform only to the requirements of the generic LSB Core module specification (LSB Core - Generic).

In addition, the application may optionally conform to one or more additional LSB module specifications.

A conforming application shall satisfy the following requirements:

  • Executable files shall be either object files in the format defined in the Object Format section of this specification, or script files in a scripting language where the interpreter is required by this specification.

  • Object files shall participate in dynamic linking as defined in the Program Loading and Linking section of this specification.

  • Object files shall employ only the instructions, traps, and other low-level facilities defined as being for use by applications in the Low-Level System Information section of this specification

  • If the application requires any optional interface defined in this specification in order to be installed or to execute successfully, the requirement for that optional interface shall be stated in the application's documentation.

  • The application shall not use any interface or data format that is not required to be provided by a conforming implementation, unless such an interface or data format is supplied by another application through direct invocation of that application during execution. The other application must also be a conforming application, and the use of such interface or data format, as well as its source (in other words, the other conforming application), shall be identified in the documentation of the application.

  • The application shall not use any values for a named interface that are reserved for vendor extensions.

A strictly conforming application shall not require or use any interface, facility, or implementation-defined extension not defined in this specification in order to be installed or to execute successfully.

Applications distributed using the packaging specification described in the generic LSB Core specification (LSB Core - Generic) may, in addition to other package dependencies described in this specification, declare a dependency on "lsb" with a version of 5.0.

Implementation Note: Application dependencies should generally be as limited as possible. For example, if a 64-bit POWER application only depends on items from the core specification, a dependency on "lsb-core-ppc64" may be more appropriate than a dependency on "lsb". The latter dependency could cause an implementation to install a number of other modules that may not be necessary to execute this application.

Chapter 3. Terms and Definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms given in ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, Annex H and the following apply.


Some LSB specification documents have both a generic, architecture-neutral part and an architecture-specific part. The latter describes elements whose definitions may be unique to a particular processor architecture. The term archLSB may be used in the generic part to refer to the corresponding section of the architecture-specific part.

Binary Standard, ABI

The total set of interfaces that are available to be used in the compiled binary code of a conforming application, including the run-time details such as calling conventions, binary format, C++ name mangling, etc.


Describes a value or behavior that is not defined by this document but is selected by an implementor. The value or behavior may vary among implementations that conform to this document. An application should not rely on the existence of the value or behavior. An application that relies on such a value or behavior cannot be assured to be portable across conforming implementations. The implementor shall document such a value or behavior so that it can be used correctly by an application.

Shell Script

A file that is read by an interpreter (e.g., awk). The first line of the shell script includes a reference to its interpreter binary.

Source Standard, API

The total set of interfaces that are available to be used in the source code of a conforming application. Due to translations, the Binary Standard and the Source Standard may contain some different interfaces.


Describes the nature of a value or behavior not defined by this document which results from use of an invalid program construct or invalid data input. The value or behavior may vary among implementations that conform to this document. An application should not rely on the existence or validity of the value or behavior. An application that relies on any particular value or behavior cannot be assured to be portable across conforming implementations.


Describes the nature of a value or behavior not specified by this document which results from use of a valid program construct or valid data input. The value or behavior may vary among implementations that conform to this document. An application should not rely on the existence or validity of the value or behavior. An application that relies on any particular value or behavior cannot be assured to be portable across conforming implementations.

In addition, for the portions of this specification which build on IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, the definitions given in IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Base Definitions, Chapter 3 apply.

Chapter 4. Documentation Conventions

Throughout this document, the following typographic conventions are used:


the name of a function


the name of a command or utility


a constant value


a parameter


a variable

Throughout this specification, several tables of interfaces are presented. Each entry in these tables has the following format:


the name of the interface


An optional symbol version identifier, if required.


A reference number indexing the table of referenced specifications that follows this table.

For example,

forkpty(GLIBC_2.0) [SUSv4]

refers to the interface named forkpty() with symbol version GLIBC_2.0 that is defined in the reference indicated by the tag SUSv4.

Note: For symbols with versions which differ between architectures, the symbol versions are defined in the architecture specific parts of of this module specification only. In the generic part, they will appear without symbol versions.

Chapter 5. Relationship To ISO/IEC 9945 POSIX

The LSB Core module of the LSB includes many interfaces described in the POSIX specification. For more details on this relationship, please see the LSB Core Generic volume.

The LSB Specification Authority is responsible for deciding the meaning of conformance to normative referenced standards in the LSB context. Problem reports regarding underlying or referenced standards in any other context will be referred to the relevant maintenance body for that standard.

Chapter 6. Relationship To Other Linux Foundation Specifications

The LSB is foundation of several other specification projects under the umbrella of the Linux Foundation (LF), which build on the interfaces defined here. However, beyond those specifications listed as Normative References in the various LSB specification volumes, this specification has no dependencies on other LF projects.

Appendix A. GNU Free Documentation License (Informative)

This specification is published under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1, March 2000

Copyright (C) 2000 Free Software Foundation, Inc. 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.


The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other written document "free" in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible for modifications made by others.

This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license designed for free software.

We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free software, because free software needs free documentation: a free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.


This License applies to any manual or other work that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under the terms of this License. The "Document", below, refers to any such manual or work. Any member of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as "you".

A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or translated into another language.

A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly within that overall subject. (For example, if the Document is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding them.

The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License.

The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License.

A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy, represented in a format whose specification is available to the general public, whose contents can be viewed and edited directly and straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file format whose markup has been designed to thwart or discourage subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent. A copy that is not "Transparent" is called "Opaque".

Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML or XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple HTML designed for human modification. Opaque formats include PostScript, PDF, proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally available, and the machine-generated HTML produced by some word processors for output purposes only.

The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself, plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material this License requires to appear in the title page. For works in formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title Page" means the text near the most prominent appearance of the work's title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text.


You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.

You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and you may publicly display copies.


If you publish printed copies of the Document numbering more than 100, and the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies. The front cover must present the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition. Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in other respects.

If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent pages.

If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a publicly-accessible computer-network location containing a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material, which the general network-using public has access to download anonymously at no charge using public-standard network protocols. If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that edition to the public.

It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.


You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:

  1. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous version if the original publisher of that version gives permission.

  2. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the Document (all of its principal authors, if it has less than five).

  3. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified Version, as the publisher.

  4. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.

  5. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to the other copyright notices.

  6. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.

  7. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice.

  8. Include an unaltered copy of this License.

  9. Preserve the section entitled "History", and its title, and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If there is no section entitled "History" in the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in the previous sentence.

  10. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the network locations given in the Document for previous versions it was based on. These may be placed in the "History" section. You may omit a network location for a work that was published at least four years before the Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.

  11. In any section entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications", preserve the section's title, and preserve in the section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.

  12. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.

  13. Delete any section entitled "Endorsements". Such a section may not be included in the Modified Version.

  14. Do not retitle any existing section as "Endorsements" or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.

If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice. These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.

You may add a section entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a standard.

You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.

The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.


You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its license notice.

The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents, make the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.

In the combination, you must combine any sections entitled "History" in the various original documents, forming one section entitled "History"; likewise combine any sections entitled "Acknowledgements", and any sections entitled "Dedications". You must delete all sections entitled "Endorsements."


You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.

You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.


A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, does not as a whole count as a Modified Version of the Document, provided no compilation copyright is claimed for the compilation. Such a compilation is called an "aggregate", and this License does not apply to the other self-contained works thus compiled with the Document, on account of their being thus compiled, if they are not themselves derivative works of the Document.

If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one quarter of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on covers that surround only the Document within the aggregate. Otherwise they must appear on covers around the whole aggregate.


Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a translation of this License provided that you also include the original English version of this License. In case of a disagreement between the translation and the original English version of this License, the original English version will prevail.


You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance.


The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See

Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.

A.12. How to use this License for your documents

To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of the License in the document and put the following copyright and license notices just after the title page:

Copyright (c) YEAR YOUR NAME. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".

If you have no Invariant Sections, write "with no Invariant Sections" instead of saying which ones are invariant. If you have no Front-Cover Texts, write "no Front-Cover Texts" instead of "Front-Cover Texts being LIST"; likewise for Back-Cover Texts.

If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit their use in free software.